Speech Therapy

What is Misarticulation Therapy & How does it Work?

Articulation refers to any speech disorder which can be defined by distortion, substitution, omission, or any addition of phonemes. Sometimes children find it difficult to utter certain sounds. He or she may alter certain sounds due to the course of their speech. In most of the cases, the children outgrow these issues with the advancement of time. But, if it persists for a longer time, then it can be an articulation problem. There are many reasons working behind articulation problem in children such as weak muscles, less control over the tongue, problems in respiratory system or any kind of speech immaturity. Sometimes adults also suffer from articulation due to hearing loss, brain injury, dyslexia, intellectual disability etc.

Articulation disorder involves some major issues that can lead to some phonemes, known as “misarticulation”. The most common misarticulations (related to sound) include additions, omissions, distortions, and substitutions etc. Misarticulation therapy has been designed to make coordination between articulators like lips, cheeks, jaw, palate, and tongue.


There are different treatments available for stammering, depending on a person's age and their circumstances.
A speech and language therapist (SLT) will work with you, your child, and educational staff to make a suitable treatment plan for your child.

An SLT can also work with adults who stammer, to find ways to improve the fluency of their speech and reduce the impact stammering has on their lives

You may be able to access psychological therapy to help with any emotional problems linked to speech difficulties.

Speech and language therapy is widely available on the NHS for people who stammer, although the level of service and waiting times vary across the country. Some treatments, such as feedback devices, may not be funded.

Hearing Loss

Physical exam. Your doctor will look in your ear for possible causes of your hearing loss, such as earwax or inflammation from an infection. Your doctor will also look for any structural causes of your hearing problems.

General screening tests. Your doctor may use the whisper test, asking you to cover one ear at a time to see how well you hear words spoken at various volumes and how you respond to other sounds. Its accuracy can be limited.

App-based hearing tests. Mobile apps are available that you can use by yourself on your tablet to screen for moderate hearing loss.

Tuning fork tests. Tuning forks are two-pronged, metal instruments that produce sounds when struck. Simple tests with tuning forks can help your doctor detect hearing loss. This evaluation may also reveal where in your ear the damage has occurred.

Audiometer tests. During these more-thorough tests conducted by an audiologist, you wear earphones and hear sounds and words directed to each ear. Each tone is repeated at faint levels to find the quietest sound you can hear.

Cleft Palate

Most cases of cleft lip and cleft palate are noticed right away at birth and don't require special tests for diagnosis. Increasingly, cleft lip and cleft palate are seen on ultrasound before the baby is born.

Ultrasound before birth

A prenatal ultrasound is a test that uses sound waves to create pictures of the developing fetus. When analyzing the pictures, a doctor may detect a difference in the facial structures

Cleft lip may be detected with ultrasound beginning around the 13th week of pregnancy. As the fetus continues developing, it may be easier to accurately diagnose a cleft lip. Cleft palate that occurs alone is more difficult to see using ultrasound.

Voice Disorders

Your doctor will ask you detailed questions about your voice problems and examine you thoroughly. A topical anesthetic may be applied to numb your tissues before your doctor uses one of the following tools to examine your vocal cords:

Mirror. Similar to a dental mirror, a long, rigid instrument with an angled mirror is inserted into your mouth.

Flexible laryngoscope. A flexible tube containing a light and camera is inserted through your nose.

Rigid laryngoscope. A rigid viewing tube is inserted through your mouth.

Videostroboscope. A camera is combined with a flashing light to provide a slow-motion view of your vocal cords as they move.

Mental Retardation

Intellectual disability (ID), once called mental retardation, is characterized by below-average intelligence or mental ability and a lack of skills necessary for day-to-day living. People with intellectual disabilities can and do learn new skills, but they learn them more slowly. There are varying degrees of intellectual disability, from mild to profound.

What is intellectual disability?

Someone with intellectual disability has limitations in two areas. These areas are:

Intellectual functioning. Also known as IQ, this refers to a person’s ability to learn, reason, make decisions, and solve problems.

Adaptive behaviors. These are skills necessary for day-to-day life, such as being able to communicate effectively, interact with others, and take care of oneself.

Cerebral Palsy

Signs and symptoms of cerebral palsy can become more apparent over time, so a diagnosis might not be made until a few months after birth.

If your family doctor or pediatrician suspects your child has cerebral palsy, he or she will evaluate your child's signs and symptoms, monitor growth and development, review your child's medical history, and conduct a physical exam. Your doctor might refer you to a specialist trained in treating children with brain and nervous system conditions (pediatric neurologist, pediatric physical medicine and rehabilitation specialist, or child developmental specialist).

Your doctor might also order a series of tests to make a diagnosis and rule out other possible causes.

Brain scans

Brain-imaging technologies can reveal areas of damage or abnormal development in the brain. These tests might include the following:

MRI. An MRI scan uses radio waves and a magnetic field to produce detailed 3D or cross-sectional images of your child's brain. An MRI can often identify lesions or abnormalities in your child's brain.
This test is painless, but it's noisy and can take up to an hour to complete. Your child will likely receive a sedative or light general anesthesia beforehand.

Cranial ultrasound. This can be performed during infancy. A cranial ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of the brain. An ultrasound doesn't produce a detailed image, but it may be used because it's quick and inexpensive, and it can provide a valuable preliminary assessment of the brain.

Autism Therapy

"What do I do next?" This is a question that has undoubtedly been asked by every parent of a child with an autism spectrum disorder (ASD). In many cases, it comes after the "What is autism?" and "How did it happen?" Unfortunately, just as with the first two questions, the answer isn't very satisfying. Although many treatments and therapies are proposed to help, few have been studied enough to know whether they really do (or don't) work, and for which children. This reality is frustrating and confusing for families and professionals caring for children with ASD.

In this section, we explore current autism treatments, the evidence that supports their use, and what we are learning from the experience of individuals and families who have tried them.

When a child is diagnosed with an autism spectrum disorder, families face the next challenge: choosing treatments and therapies for their child. What are these treatments and therapies? How much do we know about them? How can a family best evaluate whether a treatment is working for their child?

Aphasia Therapy

Aphasia is an acquired neurogenic language disorder resulting from an injury to the brain—most typically, the left hemisphere. Aphasia involves varying degrees of impairment in four primary areas:

  • Spoken language expression
  • Spoken language comprehension
  • Written expression
  • Reading comprehension

A person with aphasia often has relatively intact nonlinguistic cognitive skills, such as memory and executive function, although these and other cognitive deficits may co-occur with aphasia.

Avt Therapy
What is Auditory-Verbal Therapy?

Auditory-Verbal Therapy is specialized type of therapy designed to teach a child to use the hearing provided by a hearing aid or a cochlear implant for understanding speech and learning to talk. The child is taught to develop hearing as an active sense so that listening becomes automatic and the child seeks out sounds in life. Hearing and active listening become an integral part of communication, recreation, socialization, education, and work.

The philosophy of Auditory-Verbal Therapy (AVT) is for deaf and hard of hearing children to grow up in a regular learning environment, enabling them to become independent, participating, and contributing citizens in the mainstream society.

AVT is a parent centered approach that encourages the use of naturalistic conversation and the use of spoken language to communicate.

AVT is an approach that emphasizes the use of residual hearing to help children learn to listen, process verbal language, and to speak.

AVT Maximizes the use of the child’s aided residual hearing for the detection of sound.

The earliest possible identification of hearing loss with immediate fitting with amplification, as well as prompt intervention helps to reduce the extent of language delays commonly associated with hearing impairment.